Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam

The highest authority in the Islamic Republic is the Leader, or alternatively the Leadership Council who exercises the combined supreme political and religious power and, indeed, is a manifestation of the integration of politics with religion (Article 5 of the constitution). Furthermore, the constitution has provided for the election of a Leader or Leadership Council and the qualifications of the Leader or members of the Leadership Council (Article 107).
The first leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran Ayatollah Khomeini, assumed his position as the founder of the Islamic republic and the theological protector (vali-e-faqih). Duties, powers and qualifications of the leaders, or the Leadership Council, as the case may be, have been specified by the constitution (Article 109-111). After demise of Ayatollah Khomeini on 3 June 1989 the Assembly of Experts elected Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamanei in May 1989 as the new leader of the Islamic Republic.
The amendment of the constitution has modified the constitution as follows: The Leadership Council has been removed and the Assembly of Experts for Leadership, given the task of electing a single leader. The Constitution originally provided for election of a leader either by the people, or by the Assembly of Experts. The related amendment has removed the first option.
The Assembly of Experts has also been given the task of dismissing the leader from his position if he is incapable of carrying out his duties, or if he loses the requirements of a leader, or if it becomes clear that he lacked some of them from the beginning;
The leader is no longer required to be a supreme theological authority (marja’ taqlid) that Shia Muslims follow. He should possess adequate knowledge to issue edicts on the basis of various chapters of the Islamic canon.
The powers and duties of the leader have been set as follows, although he may delegate them to his representatives:
 Deciding the overall policies of the state after consultation with the State Expediency Council – the leader has the final word.
 Ordering referenda;
 Declaring war and peace and ordering mobilization of forces;

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam
 Resolving disputes between the heads of the three branches of the state and regulating the relationship between them;
 Signing the decree endorsing the president on his election;
 Dismissing the president in the national interest, should a ruling of the Supreme Court find him in breach of his duties, or a vote of Majlis disqualifies him;
 Pardoning prisoners or commuting their sentences at the recommendation of the head of the judiciary;
 Solving those problems which cannot be solved by ordinary means, through the State Expediency Council.
 Designation of:
– Islamic canonist members of the Guardian Council
– Head of the judiciary: Shahroudi, Mahmoud – Ayatollah
– Director of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB)
– Chief of army general staff
– Commander of the Islamic Revolution’s Guards Corps.
– Commanders of the armed forces and the police
– Commander of the general command of the armed forces
There are several institutions and agencies, which are not accountable to any branch of state, and are overseen by the leader through his representatives.
These include:
 15th Khordad Foundation (Bonyad-e Panzdah Khordad)
 Martyr Foundation (Bonyad-e Shahid)
 Housing Foundation (Bonyad-e Maskan)
 Literacy Movement (Nehzat-e Savad-Amoozi)
 Members of the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution (Shoraye Aali Enqelab-e Farhangi)
 Islamic Propagation Organization (Sazeman-e Tablighat-e Islami)
 Foundation for the Disadvantaged (Bonyad-e Mostaz’afan va Janbazan)
 Representatives of leader to universities
 Friday prayers leaders
 Representative of leader to the Army
 Representatives of leader to the IRGC
 Representatives of leader to provinces –
 Chief of Ettela’at Newspaper
 Chief of Kayhan Newspaper

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam
 Representative to ministry of Agriculture
 Head of Imam Khomeini Relief Committee
 Head of endowments and charity organization

Article 156 of the Constitution provides for an independent judiciary. According to Articles 157 and 158, the highest judicial office is the High Council of Justice, which consists of five members who serve five-year, renewable terms. The High Council of Justice consists of the chief justice of the Supreme Court and the attorney general (also seen as State Prosecutor General), both of whom must be Shia mujtahids (members of the clergy whose demonstrated erudition in religious law has earned them the privilege of interpreting laws), and three other clergy chosen by religious jurists. The responsibilities

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam
of the High Council of Justice include establishing appropriate departments within the Ministry of Justice to deal with civil and criminal offenses, preparing draft bills related to the judiciary, and supervising the appointment of judges.
Article 161 provides for the Supreme Court, whose composition is based upon laws drafted by the High Council of Justice. The Supreme Court is an appellate court that reviews decisions of the lower courts to ensure their conformity with the laws of the country and to ensure uniformity in judicial policy. Article 162 stipulates that the chief justice of the Supreme Court must be a mujtahid with expertise in judicial matters. The faqih, in consultation with the justices of the Supreme Court, appoints the chief justice for a term of five years.
In 1980 Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti was appointed by Ayatollah Khomeini as the first chief justice. Beheshti established judicial committees that were charged with drafting new civil and criminal codes derived from Shia Islamic laws. One of the most significant new codes was the Law of Qisas, which was submitted to and passed by the Majlis in 1982, one year after Beheshti’s death in a bomb explosion. The Law of Qisas provided that in cases of victims of violent crime, families could demand retribution, up to and including death. Other laws established penalties for various moral offenses, such as consumption of alcohol, failure to observe hejab (Islamic dress code for women), adultery, prostitution, and illicit sexual relations. Punishments prescribed in these laws included public floggings, amputations, and execution by stoning for adulterers.
The entire judicial system of the country has been de-secularized. The attorney general, like the chief justice, must be a mujtahid and is appointed to office for a five-year term by the faqih (Article 162). The judges of all the courts must be knowledgeable in Shia jurisprudence; they must meet other qualifications determined by rules established by the High Council of Justice. Since there were insufficient numbers of qualified senior clergy to fill the judicial positions in the country, some former civil court judges who demonstrated their expertise in Islamic law and were willing to undergo religious training were permitted to retain their posts. In practice, however, the Islamization of the judiciary forced half of the former civil court judges out of their positions. To emphasize the independence of judges from the government, Article 170 stipulates that they are “duty bound to refrain from executing governmental decisions that are contrary to Islamic laws.”

A Brief Biography of Ayatollah Hashemi Shahrodi
Ayatollah Saied Mahmud Hashemi Shahroudi was born in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq in 1948. His ancestors are originally from Shahrood, an east-central city in Iran.
His father Ayatollah saied Ali Husayni Shahroudi, is the first one who compiled and wrote the utterances of his great teacher, the great Ayatollah Khouei on Fiqh(Islamic jurisprudence) and Usul-al-Fiqh(the principles of Fiqh)
After graduating from Alavieh primary school, he started his Islamic studies. Due to his brilliant talent and intelligence, He could pass the introductory and advanced levels in very few years, then he attended Ayatollah Sadr’s classes on Usul-al-Fiqh and Khariji-Fiqh (post advanced Fiqh (to understand Islamic positions better, refer to Social Affairs section). At the same time he took part the late Imam Khumayni and Ayatollah Khouei’s courses and not only was highly respected by these two but , other Islamic studies centers were interestingly eager to profit from his genius on Islamic sciences and Fiqh.
Before he finished his third decade of his life, on the 27th of Rabi’ I, 1399 (of Muhammadan year) he was given the high title of Ijtihad (the authority of independent decision making on Fiqh) by Ayatollah Sadr. Ayatollah Sadr has written in a part of Ayatollah Hashemi’s Ijtihad certification, “Today you are one of the Mujtahids who is a white hope for Islam and Muslims, I pray to the highest God for your success”.
In 1978 he was jailed. After the demonstrations which were held in Najaf for the victory of Islamic revolution of Iran, Iraqi regime accused him of holding demonstrations and pursued him but the great Ayatollah Sadr ordered him to come back to Iran as his fully authorized agent to Imam khomayni. After he came to Iran he was as a communicator between the late Imam Khomayni and Ayatollah Sadr. He had considered the reinforcement of Islamic revolution of Iran and its leadership as his duty and campaigned against Islam enemies’ threats. At the same time, he tried to reinforce the Islamic campaigns of Iraqi nation against the Iraqi regime.
Due to his great genius, special talent and his domination on Islamic sciences , he introduced himself as a brilliant scholar and Faqih (religious jurist) in many conferences and seminars on Islamic topics in Iran and abroad , such as the Congress of Islamic Development Bank in Jaddah in which he presented an article entitled, “the deposit in foreigner banks and profiting from its interest from the Islamic schools point of view”, this article was published in a quarterly by the O.I.P (organization of Islamic propaganda). He actively took part in the Congress of Islamic Thought, the Congress of Ahlulbayt World Assembly, the Assembly of Islamic Faiths Approximation, the assemblies of Hawz-E-Elmiah (the chief Islamic school) in Qom, and the seminars in the holy city of Mashad. He was in charge of the chairman of the first Congress of Imam

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam
Khumayni on “The Role of Time and Place in Ijtihad” and also the first Congress of the Fiqh Encyclopedia based on Ahlulbait (Shia Imams) school.
The leader Ayatolla Khamenei states about him, “You are a brilliant scholar in science and action and praise be to God that you have obtained a high rank in Fiqh and its related fields”.
Since 1981, he has started his high courses on Khariji-Fiqh (post advanced Fiqh) and Usul-al-Fiqh in the holy city of Qom and a great number of scholars and Islamic centers students have profited from his courses.
In August 1999, He was appointed by Ayatollah Khamenei as the supreme head of Iran’s Judiciary.
Ayatollah Hashemi’s Ijtihad Certification
Praise be to God, the lords of the words, peace be upon his best creatures,
Muhammad (p.b.h.) and his holy off spring.
Now, our honorable scholar, Hujat-Al-Islam Saied Mahmud Hashemi has passed a significant part of his life for studying Fiqh, Usul-al-Fiqh and Shari’ah(Islamic laws), and The most glorified God has assisted him and has flavones success with him to gain the high rank of ((Ijtihad)) and praise be to the Most High God for this favor.
Nowadays, He is one of the Mujtahids (religious jurist) that Islam and Muslims are in a great need of people like him.
Hereby, I charge him as my fully authorized agent in all affairs which are related to me such as financial affairs and others, so that all of my adherents and all of the scholars who are my agent are permitted to pay all the payments according to Islamic laws to him
I pray the almighty God to preserve him as a treasure for Islam and Muslims.
Mohammad Baqir Al-Sadr
27th of Rabi’ II, 1399 coinciding 1979
Ayatollah Hashemi’s Present Responsibilities:
1- The supreme head of I.R. Iran’s Judiciary
2- The former member of Faqihs (religious jurists) in Guardian Council of Iran’s Constitution.
3- Member of the State Expediency Assembly.

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam
4- Member of Islamic Sciences Teachers Society in Hawze-e-Elmiah (the chief Islamic school in Qum)
5- Member of Supreme Council of Policy Making at the Howze-e-Elmiah
6- Member of Supreme Council of Ahl ulbayt World Assembly
7- The member of Supreme Council of Islamic Faiths Approximation
8- The president of Figh Encyclopedia Institute of Ahl ulbayt’s (shias’Imams) School and also the Alqdir Islamic Studies Center.
9- The representative of Expert Parliament (For choosing the religious leader of Islamic revolution).
Head of Judiciary
Hashemi Shahroudi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Ayatollah
Prosecutor General
Dorri Najafabadi Ghorbanali; Ayatollah
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Mofid, Hossian
Head of the Judicial organization of the Armed Forces
Bahrami Mohammad Kazem; Hojjatoleslam
President of the Islamic Revolution’s Court
Mobasheri, Ali; Hojjatoleslam
Head of the Inspectorate General
Niazi Mohammad; Hojjatoleslam
President of the Clerics Court
Mohseni Ezheie, Gholam Hosein; Hojjatoleslam
President of the Coroners Office
Sadr, Shahabedin; Dr.
Director General of the State Organization for Registration of Documents and Properties
Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza
Director General of the State Organization in Charge of Prisons and Security and Educational Measures
Yasaqi, Ali Akbar
Cheif of Staff
Eizadpanah, Abdol Reza
Deputy for Judicial Affairs
Jamshidi, Alireza
Advisor of International Affairs
Larijani, Mohammad Javad
First Deputy
Raisi, Ebrahim, Hojjatoleslam
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Deputy For Execvtive affairs
Sohrab Beigi, Amir Abbas
Deputy For Training
Javaheri, Said
Speaker of
Karimi Rad, Jamal

The second highest authority next to the leader is the president. The constitution of 1979 saw the president as the head of the executive but at the same time as the coordinator of the three branches of the state. This placed him above all three of them.
People directly elect the President for a term of four years and his re-election for a successive term is permitted only once. According to the Constitution, he must possess certain qualifications, such as: Iranian origin and nationality, administrative and managerial skills, piety and trustworthiness, and a belief in the Islamic Republic’s fundamental principles and the official religion of the country.
The President signs and supervises the implementation of laws passed by the Majlis, signs treaties and other international agreements ratified by the Majlis, receives the credentials of foreign ambassadors, endorses those of Iranian ambassadors sent abroad, and presides over the National Security Council. His responsibilities also include the administration of the country’s budget and development plans ratified by the Majlis. Either the President or the First Vice President presides over the meetings of the Cabinet.
In addition to ministers, the president may also be asked questions or face a vote of non-confidence. One quarter of all members of Majlis may table a question to the president, who will have to answer it in the house. Any one member may put questions to any minister of his responsibilities. 10 members of Majlis must sign motion of non-confidence in ministers. Ministers who fail to win a vote of confidence will be dismissed. To enable a motion of non-confidence in the president, endorsement of one-third of members is required. A majority of two-thirds is needed to dismiss the president with a vote of non-confidence.
The president is no longer required to co-ordinate the Relations of the three powers of the state as the constitution earlier required. That is a task of the leader. He will have several deputies, and His vice-president will assume his tasks in his absence, upon his death or resignation, or illness for more than two months, or in any other case. The leader’s consent is essential for this. If necessary, the vice president is required to arrange for a presidential election within 50 days of assuming office.

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam

The plan and budget ministry has been abolished as a ministry, and the responsibility for it as well as the Civil Employment and Administrative Affairs Organization has been entrusted to the president. The ministry had replaced the plan and budget Organization, which had been under the direct control of the prime minister in 1985. This came about because members of Majlis were not allowed to put questions to the prime minister. But they could demand answers from the plan and budget minister.

The President’s Office consists of the Secretariat, advisors and deputies to the president. After the revolution, documents and files of the former regime’s disbanded National Security and Intelligence Organization, which was affiliated to the Prime Minister’s office, were taken over. A special department was assigned to take charge of those files. That department is still functioning under the president.
Plan and Budget Organization (Sazeman-e Modiriat va Barnamerizi), was in charge of:
 Statistics Center of Iran
 National Cartography Center
 Computer Center
 Iranian Data Processing Company
 Remote Assessment Center (satellites application project)
 State Management Training Center of Iran (Sazeman-e Amoozesh Modiriat Sanati Iran)
 National Documents Organization of Iran (Sazeman-e Assnad-e Melli Iran) files all government documents.
 Civil Retirement Organization (Sazeman-e Bazneshastegi Keshvari)
 Physical Education Organization (Sazeman-e Tarbiat Badani)
 Environmental Protection Organization (Sazeman-e Hefz-e Mohit-e Zist)
 Atomic Energy Organization (Sazeman-e Energy Atomi)

 Agriculture Jihad (Vezarat-e Jahade-e Keshavarzi)
 National Forests and Pastures Organization
 Plants Conservation Organization
 Seeds and Saplings Improvement and Provision Research Institute
 Pests and Physiopathology Research Institute

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 Soil and Water Research Institute
 Iranian Milk Industries Company
 Haft Tappeh Sugar Cane Agro-Industry Company
 National Meat Company
 Silk Worm Breeding Promotion and Research Company.
 Fisheries Company (Shilat)
 Commerce (Vezarat-e Bazargani)
 Central Cooperative Organization
 Exports Promotion Center
 Tea Organization
 Cereals Organization
 Sugar Organization
 Organization for Protection of Consumers and Producers (OPCP) Trading Services Promotion Organization
 The Iranian State Trading Company
 The Warehousing & Warehouse Construction Company
 Iranian Insurance Company
 Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines
 Science, Research and Technology (Vezarat Olom Tahqiqat va Fanavari)
 Scientific and Cultural Publications Center
 Cultural Studies and Research Institute
 Materials and Power Application and Properties Research Center
 Culture and Islamic Guidance (Vezarat Farhang va Ershad-e Islami) Culture and Islamic Guidance
 Hajj, Endowments and Charity Affairs Organization
 Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA)
 Defense and Armed Forces Logistic
 Etka Factories Company, which supplies goods to the army personnel
 Fakhr-e Iran Knitting and Weaving Company
 Machine Made Bread Factories Company
 Defense Industry Organization, which manufactures armaments
 Electronic Industries Company, with a sub-affiliate company named EasIran Company
 Iranian Aircraft Industries Company

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 Iranian Helicopter Support and Renovation Company
 Niroo Battery Manufacturing Company
 Economic Affairs and Finance (Vezarat Omoor Eqtessadi va Daraie)
 Iranian Customs Administration
 Investment and Economic and Technological Aid Organization of Iran
 The Financial Organization for Expansion of Proprietorship of Production Units
 The Electronic Calculators Services Corporation
 Auditing Company
 Iranian Central Insurance Agency
 National Iranian Public and Customs Warehouses Company
 Banks including the Central Bank of Iran, Ostan Banks, Bank Tejarat, Bank Sepah, Bank Saderat, Bank of Industry and Mine, Bank of Agriculture, Bank Melli, Housing Bank, Bank Mellat.
 Education (Vezarat-e Ammoozesh va Parvaresh)
 The Center for the Intellectual Development of Children & Young Adults
 The Guardians and Instructors Society
 The Educational Planning and Research Organization
 The National Organization for Renovation and Equipping Schools.
 Energy (Vezarat-e Niroo)
 Water Resources Research Institute
 Water Engineering Services Company (Mohab)
 Dam Construction & Irrigation Installations Company (Sabir)
 Power Engineering Services Company (Mashanir)
 National Power Generation & Transmission Company (Tavanir)
 Iranian Electrical Power Equipment Manufacturing & Provision Company (Satkab)
 Regional Water Boards
 Regional Electricity Boards.
 Foreign Affairs (Vezarat-e Omoor Kharejeh)
 International Relations College, established in 1983, trains diplomats for the ministry
 The Institute for Political and International Studies is the ministry’s tink-tank.

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 Health and Medical Education (Vezarat-e Behdasht, Darman va Amoozesh Pezeshki)
 Pasteur Institute as a research center
 Institute of Nutrition Sciences and Food Industry
 Blood Transfusion Organization
 Anti-Leprosy Organization
 Social Welfare Organization
 The National Pharmaceutical Company
 Social Security Organization
 Workers’ Welfare Bank
 Red Crescent Society
 Regional health offices in Tehran and other cities and towns.
 Housing and Urban Development (Vezarat-e Maskan va Shahr Sazi)
 Housing Organization
 Urban Lands Organization
 Iranian Housing Construction Factories Company
 Housing and Building Research Center.
 Industries and Mines (Vezarat-e Sanaye va Ma’aden)
 National Iranian Industries Organization (NIIO)
 Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran
 The Iranian Tobacco Monopoly, and a few others.
 Industries Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO)
 National Geology Organization
 National Iranian Mines and Metal Smelting Company
 National Iranian Steel Company
 National Iranian Mining Explorations Company
 National Iranian Copper Industries Company
 National Iranian Lead and Zinc Company
 Intelligence and Security (Vezarat-e Ettela’at)
 Interior (Vezarat-e Keshvar)
 State Organization for Personal Status Registration
 Law Enforcement (Police)
 Justice (Vezarat Dadgostari)
 State Notaries Department for Deeds and Real Estate
 Official Gazette Company
 Forensic Medicine Department
 Institute of Experts of Justice Administration.

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 Labor and Social Affairs (Vezarat-e Kar va Omoor Ejetma’i)
 Professional and Technical Training Organization
 Oil (Vezarat-e Naft)
 National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC)
 National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC)
 National Iranian Petrochemical Company (NIPC)
 Iranian Offshore Oil Company (IOOC)
 National Iranian Drilling Company (NIDC)
 National Iranian Tanker Company (NITC)
 Kala Company Ltd.
 Ahvaz Pipe Mills.
 Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones (Vezarat-e Post, Telegraph va Telephone)
 Telecommunications Company of Iran
 Posts Company
 Telephones Company
 Roads & Transport (Vezarat-e Raah va Tarabari) – Khorram, Ahmad
 Railways of the Islamic Republic of Iran
 Ports and Shipping Organization
 Civil Aviation Organization
 Islamic Republic of Iran Airline (Iran Air)
 National Aviation Services Company (Asseman)
 National Meteorology Organization
 Roads Safety Equipment Production Company
 Road Construction & Maintenance Machinery & Equipment Procurement Company
 Iranian Roads Development Organization
 Soil Technical and Mechanical Laboratory
 Irano-Russia Transportation Company
 Welfare and Social Security (Vezarat-e Refah va Tamin-e Ejtemaii)
Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam 210
The Cabinet consists of the Ministers for:
Agriculture Jihad
Mohammad Reza Eskandari
Masoud Mirkazemi
Science, Research and Technology
Mohammad Mehdi Zahedi
Defense and Logistics
Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar
Economy and Finance
Davoud Danesh-Jafari
Mahmoud Farshidi
Parviz Fattah
Foreign Affairs
Manouchehr Mottaki
Health and Medical Education
Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
Housing and Urban Development
Mohammad Saeedikia
Industries and Mines
Ali Akbar Mehrabian
Information (Intelligence)
Gholam Hossein Mohseni-Ejehei
Mostafa Pour Mohammadi
Islamic Guidance and Culture
Mohammad Hossein Saffar Harandi
Jamal Karimi-Rad
Labor and Social Affairs
Mohammad Jahromi
Gholam Hossein Nozari
Posts Telephones & Telegraphs
Mohammad Soleimani
Roads and Transport
Mohammad Rahmati
Welfare and Social Security
Parviz Kazemi
Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam 211
Supreme Leader
Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI, Ayatollah
Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles)
Secretary of the Cabinet
First Vice Pres.
Vice Pres. for Atomic Energy
Qolam Reza AQAZADEH-Khoi
Vice Pres. for Cultural Heritage & Tourism
Vice Pres. for Environmental Protection
Vice Pres. for Legal & Parliamentary Affairs
Majid ANSARI, Hojjat ol-Eslam
Vice Pres. for Martyrs & War Veterans Affairs
Vice Pres. for Physical Training
Vice Pres. for Management & Planning
Government Spokesman
Gholamhossein Elham
Governor of Central Bank
Director of Center for Women and Family Participation Affairs
Nasrin Soltankhah
Secretary of the Cabinet
Masoud Zaribafan
Second Deputy Speaker of Majlis
Mohammad Hassan Aboutorabi-Fard
Commander of Police (niroo-ye entezaami)
Esmail Ahmadi Moghaddam
Spokesman of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Hamid Reza Assefi
First Deputy Speaker of Majlis
Mohammad Reza Bahonar
Chairman of the City Council of Tehran
Mehdi Chamran
Representative to the IAEA
Pirouz Hosseini
Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council
Ali Larijani
Mayor of Tehran
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
President of IRIB
Ezzatollah Zarghami
Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam 212
Representative to the United Nations
Mohammad Javad Zarif
Governor, Central Bank of Iran
Head of Interest Section in the US
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York

The seventh Islamic Consultative Assembly convened on May 27, 2004 in the wake of fierce squabbling between the conservatives and the reformists.
The legislative election was held on Feb 20. The top electoral oversight body, Guardian Council, disqualified the bulk of pro-reform aspirants who were running for the poll. President Mohammad Khatami and then speaker of parliament Mehdi Karroubi released a statement declaring that the fate of 190 Majlis seats was aforethought.
A total of 8,172 candidates, including 7,344 men, registered to contest the vote but the Guardian Council wed out 3,617 contenders, mostly reformists. Among those barred from running were 85 lawmakers in the former Majlis and other prominent
Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam 213
figures. Eventually 1,303 pulled out of the race and finally 4,665 candidates bid for 289 seats. The vacant seat was reserved for the quake-stricken city of Bam.
The voter turnout by the Islamic Republic was record low with 23,734,677 eligible voters participating in the elections. The electorate turnout stood at 51.21 percent.
228 MPs were elected in the first round while the run-off decided for vacancies in other constituencies. Twelve women won seats in the Majlis – dominated by the conservatives.
Members of Majlis
Abbasi, Asadollah
Baghbanian, Ali
Abbasi, Mohammad
Bahonar, Mohammad Reza
Abbasi, Seyed Hassan
Bahrami, Mohammad Bagher
Abootorabi Fard, Seyed Mohammad Hassan
Bahrami Ahmadi Hamid
Abtahi, Seyed Mahmood
Banaei, Ali
Aeen Parast, Jafar
Bayat, Rafat
Afaride, Hossein Sarvati
Bayram Galdi, Barmak
Afshari, Ali
Bet-Kelia, Yonaten
Ahmadi, Ahmad
Bolookian, Ahmad
Ajoorloo, Fateme
Danesh Jafari, Davood
Alahyari, Abbas-Ali
Daneshiar, kamal
Alami, Akbar
Dehghan, Mohammad
Alia, Fateme
Dini, Valiollah
Alikhani, Qodratolah
Dirbaz, Ali
Amini, Jahanbakhsh
Ebadi, Seyed Ali Reza
Aminzade, Elham
Eftekhari, Lale
Aminzade, Elham
Eliasi, Bahman
Amiri Khamkani, Hossein
Emami Rad, Ali
Amiri Khamkani, Hossein
Esmaeeli, Qaffar
Ansari, Mohammad Sae’ed
Esmailzade, Habibollah
Aqaie Moghanjoqi, Ali-Akbar
Fahimi Gigloo, Soleiman
Arjomand, Seyed Jamaledin
Faker, Mohammad Reza
Asgari, Teimoor Ali
Falahat Pisheh, Heshmatollah
Ashoori Qale Roodkhani, Nasser
Farhangi, Mohammad Hosein
Ashoori Taziani, Mohammad
Fathipour, Arsalan
Attarzade, Shokrollah
Fattahi, Abed
Azizi, Qasem
Fazlali, Morteza
Granmayepoor, Asghar
Forouzesh, Peiman
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Habibi, Bahram
Fouladgar, Hamid Reza
Habibzade Bookani, Anvar
Imani, Ghodratollah
Haji Babaie, Hamid Reza
Iranzhad, Abdolghafoor
Hamidi, Hooshang
Jabarzade, Esmaiel
Hashemi, Seyed Hossein
Jalali Jafari, Rashid
Hashemi Riseh, Seyyed Mostafa
Jamshidi Ardeshiri, Mohammad
Hassani Bafrani, Hossein
Ka’bi, Abdollah
Hassanvand, Fereidoon
Kamran Dastjerdi, Hassan
Hassanvand, Mahmood Reza
Karami, Morteza
Hassanvand, Fathollah
Karami, Gholamreza
Hedayat Khah, Sattar
Karkhane’e, Ebrahim
Heidarpoor Shahrezaei, Avaz
Katoozian, Hamid Reza
Heidarpoor Shahrezaei, Avaz
Kavianipoor, Mohammad Taghi
Hejazifar, Hashem
Khadem Azqadi, Amir Reza
Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah
Khas Ahmadi, Ahmad
Hosseini, Seyed Bohlool
Khodadadi, Salman
Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad
Nadimi, Eiraj
Hosseini Heidarabadi, Seyed Sobhan
Nasiri, Naser
Hosseini Tabatabaei, Seyed Hassan
Nateq Noori, Ahmad
Madani Bejestani, Seyed Mahmood
Nabizade, Mohammad Ali
Maleki, Vali
Naderan, Elyas
Mansoori Razi, Morad Ali
Ne’matzadeh Gharakhili, Ghorban Ali
Maramaii, Mohammad Gholi
Nejabat, Hossein
Marhaba, Shapoor
Nikfar, Ahmad
Matour Zadeh, Mostafa
Niknam, Kourosh
Mesri, Abdolreza
Noei Aghdam, Hassan
Mir Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad
Noosh Abadi, Hossein
Mir Tajeddini, Seyed Mohammad Reza
Paknezhad, Seyed Abbas
Mo’adabpoor, seyed Mojtaba
Pashang, Hamid Reza
Mofatteh, Mohammad Mahdi
Pir-Mo’azen, Nooredin
Moghnian, Mohammad Ali
Pishbin, Ahmad
Mohammadi, Bahman
Poorfatemi, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi
Mohebi Nia, Jahanbakhsh
Pourzaman, Rasool
Mohseni Bandpei, Anooshiravan
Qiasi Moradi, Karim
Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam 215
Mola Hoveyzeh, Seyed Nezam
Qomi, Mohammad
Moosavi, Seyed Nasser
Qorbani, Moosa
Moosavi, Seyed Ahmad
Ra’iyat, Vali
Moosavi, Seyed Fazlollah
Rabbani, Mohammad Hadi
Morovati, Mehrangiz
Rahbar, Mohammad Taghi
Mortazavi Farsani, Seyed Ghobad
Rahbar, Fateme
Mottaki, Manoochehr
Rahmani, Rajab
Movahed, Seyed Haji Mohammad
Rahmani, Reza
Mozaffar, Hossein
Rajaei, Abbass
Mozaffari, Gholam Hossein
Rastad, Abdolmohammad
Sa’adat, Hamid
Razmian Moqadam, Hassan
Sadat Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Jafar
Rezaie Mirqaed, Omidvar
Sadegh Daghighi, Kianoosh
Riaz, Seyed Ali
Sadoonzade, Javad
Roohi Sorkhkolaii, Abolqasem
Sajjadian, Mohammad Reza
Tabatabaii, Seyed Hadi
Sanati Mehrabani, Amir
Tabatabaii nejad, Seyed Mostafa
Sarafraz Yazdi, Ali
Tabe, Asadollah
Seyed Abadi, Hassan
Talaie Nik, Reza
Shabani, Amin
Tavakkoli, Ahmad
Shahi Arabloo, Mohammad
Yahyavi, Seyyed Mohsen
Shahrokhi, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi
Yousefian Mola, Ezzatollah
Shayegh, Eshrat
Yavari, Mansour
Sheikh, Mohammad Ali
Zadsar Jirofti, Ali
Sheikholeslam, Hosein
Staki, Mohammad Hossein
Shoja’a, Seyed Abdolmajid
Soudani, Naser
Shoja’poorian, Valiolah
Sorouri, Parviz
Sobhani, Hassan
Soltani, Mohammad
Soleimani, Hassan
Haddad Adel, Gholam Ali (Speaker)
Date of Birth: 1945
Place of Birth: Tehran, Tehran
Education: Ph.D., Physics
 Hajj

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 Culture of nakedness and nakedness of the culture Family in Islam
 Islam and nationalism

Biography: Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel has managed to take the helm of turbulent parliament nearly a quarter a century after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. He was a Tehrani student who loved physics. He headed for the International Shiraz University and got his MSc in physics and quantum. But unexpected events changed his course of life.
A top young physicist in Pahlavi regime’s heyday, Hadda-Adel became a member of the Islamic Student Association at Shiraz University. The associations were inclined towards the Freedom Movement of Iran and the National Front of Iran. The universities were dominated by leftist economic views. Haddad-Adel passed his university period without any peril but his return to Tehran created threats. The security service of shah (SAVAK) took Haddad-Adel and his comrades into custody for a short period of time. Haddad-Adel did not continue his studies and the reasons remain shrouded in mystery.
Philosopher Student
He shifted into philosophy in 1970 in Tehran University. He got familiar with new figures, which influenced him too much. Dr. Hossein Nasr and Dr. Morteza Motahari were his professors.
During his studies, Haddad-Adel got acquainted with the granddaughter of Dr. Nasr who, like Haddad-Adel, had switched over from physics to philosophy. Dr. Nasr helped Haddad-Adel become a member of the Association of Iranian Philosophy. After the revolution, Dr. Nasr went to the United States and established an institute to defend tradition against modernity. His first project was dialogue among religions. Dr. Abdol-Karim Soroush and Dr. Mohammad Mojtahed Shabestarti had taken part at the function. Haddad-Adel learned Islamic philosophy from Dr. Motahari and stood by him up to 1979.
Revolutionary Philosopher
Haddad-Adel’s familiarity with Dr. Motahari edged him toward the heart of the political affairs in Iran. He tried in vain to stay out of politics but he was involuntarily engaged. Haddad-Adel was well known to both militant students and clerics. After the revolution, when then chief of the state radio and television Saeed Qotbzadeh was dismissed, a supervisory council was formed for the state broadcasting service. The five-member council comprised Behzad Nabavi, Ebrahim Pirayandeh (representative from the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance), Mohammad Mussavi Khoiniha (representing Imam Khomeini), Azizi and Gholam-Ali Haddad-Ael.

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam

Cultural Revolution
Haddad-Adel was also a member of the newly established Islamic Republic Party. His proximity to the clergy added to this criticism of liberals. Haddad-Adel gained stronger footholds in the Islamic Republic. Reluctant to take posts in political affairs, Haddad-Adel went to the Ministry of Education. Haddad-Adel and the Association of Seminary Teachers had fallen into disgrace. The former insisted on inclusion of materials in the textbooks for the Sunni Muslims while the latter was opposed. Haddad-Adel retained his post as deputy minister for nearly 13 years. Afterwards, he was named as chairman of the Persian Literature and Language Academy — another cultural job.
Moderate Figure
Haddad-Adel was well familiar with the nationalists since he was a student. He was grateful to “Mehdi Bazargan and Yadollah Sahabi did their best to prove that religion and science were not incompatible and they complement one another,” Haddad-Adel wrote in a newspaper column in memory of Sahabi.
As deputy education minister, Haddad published an article from Ezzatollah Sahabi (son of Yadollah Sahabi) in the textbooks. In the meantime, Haddad-Adel maintained friendly relations with Dr. Soroush. The duo established the Association of Philosophy in the country. Dr. A’vani was named to head the association. The relations between Haddad-Adel and Soroush turned sour when the latter separated from the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution. Haddad-Adel and Soroush finally stood against one another.
Player of Politics
Haddad-Adel got acquainted with Seyed Ali Khamenei after the revolution. They know each other at the Islamic Republic Party. The daughter of Haddad-Adel and the son of Ayatollah Khamenei got married in 1997 and the friendship deepened. “This family bond does not affect my political and cultural views and behaviors,” Haddad-Adel wrote at the time.
However, Haddad-Adel cottoned on to politics, the thing he sought to keep away from. It was hard to believe that the name of Haddad-Adel was included in the list of conservatives who ran for the Feb 2000 legislative elections.
Haddad-Adel started his political activities with membership in the parliament. The reformists had overturned a conservative majority of the parliament but the Guardian Council annulled the result of the vote in Tehran and it helped Haddad-Adel grab a seat. The reformist lawmakers did not want to confirm his credentials but speaker of Majlis Mehdi Karroubi finally convinced the legislators to endorse him. Haddad-Adel led a conservative minority in the parliament.

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam

According to Article 85 of the Constitution, smaller conventions of representatives are held according to those representatives’ records and information, and their own tendencies, as well as regarding the priorities. There they discuss and complete the bills from the government and the proposals from the representatives or from the Counties’ Higher Councils
The number of the members of each Committee is proposed and determined by the standing Presiding Board, considering the country’s needs and observing the priorities. Making any change in the number of the members is also a responsibility of the Presiding Board. It is necessary that each MP, apart from the head, should be the member of one of the standing committees.
Standing Committees
Standing Committees are formed with due regard to the organizational structures of the country. It may sometimes happen that some identical Committees are consolidated with the approval of the Majlis in order to accelerate the execution of the duties assigned to them. Standing Committees listed below may be increased, when necessary, with the approval of the Majlis.
Each Deputy should accept membership of at least one of the following Standing Committees. Article 42 of the Rules of Procedure of the Majlis mentions those Standing Committees as follows:
 Education
 Islamic Art, Guidance and Media
 Administrative and Recruitment Affairs
 Economy, Finance and Cooperation
 Plan and Budget
 Oil
 Industries and Mines
 Labor and Social Affairs
 Housing and Urban Development, Roads and Transportation
 Judicial and Legal Affairs
 Defense
 Foreign Policy
 Councils and Domestic Affairs
 Health and Welfare
 Post, Telegraph and Energy Affairs
 Commerce and Distribution
 Agricultural Affairs
 Article 88 & 90

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 Department for Accounting, Budget and Financial Affairs of Majlis
 Revolution Organs’ Affairs
 The Select Committee for the Survey of the Acts / Laws Belonging to the Pre revolution Period or the Council of the Revolution
 Culture and higher Education

As regards those bills and motions which cannot be referred to any of the above mentioned Committees because their relevance to those Committees is not clearly specified and they display various ambiguous or doubtful aspects, the Majlis Presiding Board can form a special supervisory Committee (a select or ad hoc Committee) whose members are selected from the related Committees, and refer those bills and matters to that Committee, which in turn will report the result to the Majlis after deliberation.
If there a need arises to deal with exceptional and important questions necessitating a special Committee to deliberate them, a Committee shall be formed on the endorsement of the Majlis. Members of this special Committee (Extraordinary Committee) range from 5 to 11 and are elected directly in the open session by the Deputies through secret ballot and a relative majority.
Joint Committees
Whenever there is a bill or proposal related to two different standing Committees, those two Committees hold joint sessions; and thus a Joint Committee is formed in order to deal with that particular bill or proposal.
Standing Committee on the 90th Article of the Constitution
This Committee is based on Article 90 of the Constitution. Its main duties are as follows:
 Correspondence with public institutions and the three Powers.
 Asking for explanation as regards complaints from people.
 Reading the related reports in the Majlis.
The Assembly of Experts, which meets for one week every year, consists of 86 “virtuous and learned” clerics elected by the public to eight-year terms. Like presidential and parliamentary elections, the Council of Guardians determines who can run for a seat in the assembly. Members of the Assembly of Experts in turn elect the Supreme Leader

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam

from within their own ranks and periodically reconfirm him. The assembly has never been known to challenge any of the Supreme Leader’s decisions.
The constitution has provided for the convening of an Assembly of Experts (Majlis-e Khobregan) to choose a leader in the event of Imam Khomeini’s demise, and to determine if the leader, or any member of the Leadership Council, is capable of fulfilling his duties. This will be done by continuously reviewing his/their performance (Articles 108 and 111).
The idea of an assembly of experts was born out of the post-revolution debates concerning a constituent assembly for drawing up a constitution. When the majority of the electorate voted for an Islamic republic in preference over a monarchical regime in a two-way referendum in April 1979, it was decided to submit drafts of the constitution to an assembly for debating and later putting the outcome to a referendum.
Some political groups and the provisional government stood for convention of a full constituent assembly with over 600 members from all over the country. However, the clerical leaders in particular believed that a constituent assembly would waste much time, and would prolong the debates for months or even for years. Imam Khomeini intervened in favor of the second group, and ordered elections for a smaller assembly, called the Assembly of Experts, with over 70 members.
Consequently, the First Assembly of Experts was convened and after debating a draft constitution, which the provisional government submitted, and amending it extensively, put the final product to a referendum on 2 December 1979. The assembly was then disbanded.
The balloting for the Second Assembly of Experts, as required by the constitution, was held in December 1982 for the election of 83 members, of whom 76 were elected in the first round and the rest in the second round. A number of members passed away in the past few years, being substituted in April 1988 by-elections.
Members of the Assembly of Experts do not face any restrictions concerning their engagement in other occupations, such as membership of parliament or holding government positions. As a result, a good number of leading officials are members of the Assembly of Experts. But, unlike the First Assembly of Experts, only clerics are members of the second assembly.
The Assembly of Experts is required to have one annual session. It is required by law to meet in Qom, but up to now its sessions have been held in Tehran out of convenience. Nevertheless, the Secretariat of the Assembly of Experts is based in Qom. The term of the Assembly of Experts is eight years.

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam

The constitution has provided for a constitutional council of sages known as the Council of Guardians of the Constitution (Shora-ye Negahban-e Qanun-e Assassi, Articles 91-99). The Guardian Council, as it is known for short, is in effect an upper house of parliament with the power to vote out the lower house’s resolutions. It is assigned to check the laws passed by the Majlis, compare them with the provisions of the Islamic canon and the constitution, and ratify them, or return them to the House for being amended.
The Guardian Council is a body dominated by conservatives whose members are appointed by Ayatollah Khamenei. The 12-member council is a powerful non-elected body that supervises elections and approves laws passed by parliament. Ayatollah Khameini appoints some of the council’s members, and some are selected by parliament from a list put forward by the judiciary. The Guardian Council, comprising of six jurists appointed by the supreme leader and six lawyers, oversees laws, which are passed by the parliament to confirm their conformity with the Islamic teachings and the national constitution. The lawyers, proposed by the judiciary, are elected by the parliament.
As one of the most significant institutions under by the Supreme Leader, the Guardian Council (GC) has been established to safeguard Islamic rules and the Constitution. The body is in charge of screening the acts ratified by the Majlis (Parliament) so that they are not in conflict with either Islamic laws or the Constitution. Should the Guardian Council find any legislation made by the Parliament in contrast with Islam and the Constitution, it will turn them down.
Council of Guardians reviews all legislation passed by the Majles for adherence to Islamic and constitutional principles. Motions and bills passed by the Majlis do not automatically become law. The Majlis is required to forward all its resolutions to the Guardian Council. The council will announce its opinion on them within no more than 10 days. It may, however, request more time if necessary. Regarding the compatibility of the legislation with Islamic provisions, only the opinion of a majority of the six Islamic canonists of the council is valid, but concerning their constitutionality the opinion of the majority of all members will hold. The council members are required to attend Majlis debates on urgent bills. Article 93 of the constitution has emphasized that the Majlis does not hold any legal status, if the Guardian Council has not yet been formed, except for the purpose of approving the credentials of the MPs and the election of six jurists to the Guardian Council.
Members of the Guardian Council serve a six-year term. Only in the first term, however, half of its members, as determined by lots, were changed after three years. The

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam

leader is empowered to reinstate the Islamic canonist members of the council after their six-year term is over. They carry out the religious screening process on a vast majority basis during which the jurists are not eligible to vote.
The Guardian Council also has the duty of interpreting the constitutional provisions, and its opinions in this regard are valid by a majority of three-fourths of its members.
A further key task of the Guardian Council is monitoring the Assembly of Experts, presidential, parliamentary and City Council elections, as well as referendums. Based on the interpretation of the Guardian Council members of the Constitution, the watchdog body has also the right to qualify or disqualify the electoral candidates. Based on the same interpretation, the Guardian Council says it has the right of the so-called “approbatory supervision”, which can approve or reject the qualification of the candidates for what it calls the interests of the regime.
The Constitution provides the Council of Guardians the power to screen and disqualify candidates for elective offices based on a set of requirements, including candidates’ ideological beliefs. According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), the Council of Guardians rejected the candidacy of 145 out of the 356 candidates who filed to run for 17 seats in the special Majles election held concurrently with the Presidential election in June 2001. This constituted a far higher percentage than were rejected in the February 2000 Majles elections.
Thanks to a recent enactment from the Expediency Council, the Guardian Council is obliged to present its evidences for disqualification of the nominees. According to the Constitution, if the majority of the MPs reject the faults found by the Guardian Council regarding the acts passed by the Parliament, the legislation would be passed on to the Expediency Council for final settlement.
Members of the Council of Guardians
 Jannati, Ahmad; Ayatollah (Died, to be replaced) on Sep 04 2007 Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani became the head of the council.
 Kadkhodaie, Mo’men, Mohammad; Ayatollah
 Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza
 Larijani, Sadeq; Hojatoleslam
 Abbasifard, Mohammad Reza
 Rezvani, Gholamreza; Ayatollah
 Esmaieli, Mohsen
 Qadiri, Mohammad Hasan; Ayatollah

Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam

 Zavarehei, Seyyed Reza
 Yazdi, Mohammad; Ayatollah
 Azizi, Ebrahim

In 1988, when stalemates between Parliament and the Council of Guardians proved intractable, Ayatollah Khomeini created the Expediency Council and charged it with mediating disputes between the two bodies. Now, according to the constitution, the Expediency Council serves as an advisory body to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the most powerful governing bodies in the country, at least in name.
Former President Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani currently heads the council, and the majority of its 34 members hail from the conservative parties. It has sided, for the most part, with the conservative Council of Guardians in its disputes with Parliament.
According to article 112 of the Constitution the Expediency Council is established upon instruction of the Leader to look into the following:
1. If the Council of Guardians decides that a bill is contrary to Islamic law or to the Constitution and if the Majles does not act accordingly the Expediency Council can be asked to settle the matter.
2. It provides advice in matters referred to the Council by the Leader.
3. It consults with the Leader on policy matters.
Members of the Expediency Discernment Council
 Hashemi Rafsanjani, Akbar; Hojjatoleslam (Chairman)
Legal Entities
 Khatami, Mohammad; Hojjatoleslam (President)
 Hashemi Shahroudi, Mahmoudd; Ayatollah (Judiciary Chief)
 Jannati, Ahmad; Ayatollah (Member of Guardians Council) (died, to be replaced)
 Ostadi, Reza; Ayatollah (Member of Guardians Council)
 Rezvani, Gholamreza; Ayatollah (Member of Guardians Council)
 Mo’men, Mohammad; Ayatollah (Member of Guardians Council)
 Yazdi, Mohammad; Ayatollah (Member of Guardians Council)
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 Taheri Khoram-Abadi, Hasan; Ayatollah (Member of Guardians Council)
Real Entities
 Mahdavi Kani, Mohammad Reza; Ayatollah
 Amini Najafabadi, Ebrahim; Ayatollah
 Vaez Tabasi, Abbas; Hojjatoleslam
 Emami Kashani, Mohammad; Ayatollah
 Mousavi, Mir Hussein
 Velayati, Ali Akbar
 Mohammadi Reyshahri, Mohammad; Hojjatoleslam
 Sane’i, Hassan; Hojjatoleslam
 Fereidoun Rowhani, Hassan; Hojjatoleslam
 Mousavi Khoeiniha, Mohammad; Hojjaoleslam
 Asgar Owladi, Habibollah
 Dorri Najafabadi, Qorbanali; Hojjatoleslam
 Larijani, Ali
 Mirsalim, Mostafa
 Tavassoli Mahallati, Mohammadreza; Ayatollah
 Nouri, Abdullah; Hojjatoleslam
 Nabavi, Morteza
 Firouzabadi, Hassan; Lt. General
 Aqazadeh, Gholamreza
 Namdar Zanganeh, Bijan
 Hashemi, Mohammad
 Nourbakhsh, Mohsen
 Habibi, Hassan Ebrahim
Iran is the only country whose executive does not control the armed forces. In fact, though the president has nominal rule over the Supreme National Security Council and the Ministry of Intelligence and Security, in practice the Supreme Leader dictates all matters of foreign and domestic security.
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Article 176 of Iran’s Constitution sets up the Supreme National Security Council, and charges it with “preserving the Islamic Revolution, territorial integrity, and national sovereignty.”
Supreme Leader of Iran Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei in a decree appointed members of the High council for Cultural Revolution for a period of three years on May 07, 2007.
The decree, appointed 22 dignitaries for the post, among them top nuclear negotiator Ali Larijani, Majlis Speaker Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel, Secretary of the Guardian Council Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati (Died. To be replaced), former foreign minister Ali Velayati, former prime minister Mir-Hossein Moussavi, and former vice-presidents Hassan Habibi and Mohammad-Reza Aref.
The Council previously grouped heads of the three branches of government, ministers of Culture and Islamic Guidance, of Science, Research and Technology, of Health, and of Education, the heads of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Broadcasting, of the State Management and Planning Organization, of the Islamic Propagation Organization, of the Women Social and Cultural Council, and of Islamic Azad University, as well as the chairmen of the Majlis commissions of Education and Research, of Culture, and of Health and Medicare.
The Supreme Leader’s new decree lists the members of the Council as follows:
1. (Secretary of the Guardian Council) Haj Sheikh Ahmad Jannati (Died. To be replaced)
2. (Majlis Speaker) Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel
3. (Former Vice-President) Hassan Habibi
4. (Former Prime Minister) Mir-Hossein Moussavi
5. Ahmad Ahmadi
6. Ali Shariatmadari
7. Reza Davari
8. (Former Foreign Minister and Leadership Advisor for Foreign and International Affairs) Ali-Akbar Velayati
9. Iraj Fazel
10. (Former Vice-President) Mohammad-Reza Aref
11. Mehdi Golshani
12. (Top nuclear negotiator and Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council) Ali Larijani
13. Ali-Reza Sadr-Hosseini
14. Mohammad-Ali Keynejad
15. Mohsen Ghomi
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16. Hassan Rahimpour
17. Mohammad-Reza Mokhber
18. Sadeq Vaezzadeh
19. Ali-Akbar Sadeqi-Rashad
20. (Head of the Islamic Culture and Communication Organization) Mahmoud Mohammadi Araqi
21. (Deputy Minister of Science, Research and Technology for Education) Mansour Kabkanian
22. (Member of Board of Instructors of Tehran
Together with the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), the regular army comprises the Islamic Republic’s armed forces.
According to Iran’s Constitution, the regular army of the Islamic Republic is responsible for guarding the independence and territorial integrity of the country and maintaining order. The army, which falls under the control of the Supreme Leader, must be committed to Islamic ideology.
In the late 1980s, after eight years battling Iraq in a war in which it was largely outgunned, Iran’s Parliament announced plans to spend $2 billion a year over five years to purchase weapons. Between 1989 and 2000, the Islamic Republic acquired 526 tanks, 72 combat aircraft, and 13 warships.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, or IRGC, which was created in May 1979, is charged with protecting the revolution and its achievements. It is separate and distinct from the “regular” military, and the rivalry between the two military branches has been ever present since the founding of the Islamic Republic.
Though figures regarding the IRGC’s troop strength vary, recent estimates put it at 120,000.
The Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS) is one of the most enigmatic entities operating in the Islamic Republic and reliable information about its structure and reach is hard to come by. What are known is that the Supreme Leader is in control of all matters of defense, security, and foreign policy, and that a special law dictates that the head of the MOIS must be a cleric, which deepens the Supreme Leader’s influence.
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According to the MOIS foundation law, which was passed by Parliament in 1983, the ministry is charged with the “gathering, procurement, analysis, and classification of necessary information inside and outside the country.” It is responsible for disclosing conspiracies that sabotage the integrity of the Islamic Republic.
Looking Back
Iran has had a formal intelligence and security organization since 1957, but during the monarchy little was heard about it in the national media other than the names of its directors (Teimur Bakhtiar, Hassan Pakravan, Nematollah Nassiri, and Nasser Moghaddam). The National Organization for Intelligence and Security (Sazeman-i Ettelaat va Amniyat-i Keshvar, SAVAK) was dreaded, particularly because of the activities of its domestic security branch, Department 3, which had a reputation for torture and other human rights abuses.
Oversight of SAVAK was limited. Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi created the Special Intelligence Bureau (Daftar-i Vizhe-yi Ettelaat) in 1958-59 and tapped his close friend Hussein Fardust to run it. The bureau’s duties included the collection of information from SAVAK and other branches of the government, as well as oversight. The Imperial Inspectorate Organization (Bazrasi-i Shahanshahi) was created in 1958 and resurrected in 1968 to investigate public complaints against military personnel, civilian government officials, and judges, but it never accomplished much.
The shah created a short-lived National Security Council in 1959-60, and Prime Minister Shahpour Bakhtiar recreated this council in January 1979. Several intelligence-coordination councils (Shora-yi Hamahangi) were created as well.
The oversight and coordinating bodies failed to function properly mainly because of the shah’s leadership style, in which he never trusted his officials and encouraged their competition. Officials who did not care for the functioning of these bodies would bypass them and report directly to the shah, or they would use personal networks to get the shah’s ear. Parliamentary oversight of SAVAK was not an issue.
The Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS), Savak’s successor, operated in the shadows until the late 1990s. The MOIS seemed to become fair game for the media after courageous journalists like Akbar Ganji revealed the involvement of ministry personnel in the serial murders of dissidents.
A reformist daily, “Etemad,” reported on 21 July, 2005 that there has been talk of changes in the MOIS “for some time now.” The daily did not describe what the changes would be, but it hinted at them when it said that under President Mohammad Khatami (1997-2005) the ministry had become accountable and enjoyed public trust.
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“The idea of changing a ministry with such characteristics is both disconcerting and questionable,” the daily warned.
By mid-August, just days before President Mahmud Ahmadinejad submitted his list of prospective cabinet ministers to the legislature; there were rumors that Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khameini would take over supervision of the MOIS from the parliament. Hard-line legislator Elias Naderan allegedly was gathering signatures for a bill that would make this law. The proposal met with criticism from several parts of the political spectrum, including reformers like former Vice President Mohammad Ali Abtahi and the traditional conservatives like Asadollah Badamchian from the Islamic Coalition Party.
Hojatoleslam Mohammad Razavi Yazdi, a member of the pro-reform Militant Clerics Association (Majma-yi Ruhaniyun-i Mobarez), criticized any sort of changes in the ministry’s modus operandi. He referred to the Khatami administration’s elimination of the ministry’s involvement in economic activities. Mohammad Atrianfar of the centrist Executives of Construction Party expressed concern that the elimination of parliamentary oversight, as well as legal supervision and guidance, could lead to violations of citizens’ rights.
Naderan, the parliamentarian backing the bill, said two weeks later that its object is to separate the counterintelligence unit from the rest of the ministry. In that way, he continued, ministry personnel would be subject to independent supervision. Another supporter of the bill, Imad Afruq of the hard-line Islamic Iran Developers Coalition, portrayed it as an effort to create a watchdog that would protect the public.
Amir Mohebbian, the editor of the hard-line “Resalat” daily, defended the legislation by saying that its proponents believe the mechanism for supervising the ministry is weak and must be strengthened.
Reformist commentators were particularly outraged by the proposal. Saeed Hajjarian, the founder of the ministry, warned that separating the counterintelligence unit from the rest of the ministry is the prelude to eliminating parliamentary supervision and creating “parallel” intelligence bodies. If a qualified cleric who has won a parliamentary vote of confidence is the intelligence minister but he still cannot control his personnel, Hajjarian asked, and then who can run the ministry? Other reformists voiced alarm and called for a debate on the bill.
Hard-liners in the legislature are not of one mind on this issue. Hard-line parliamentarian Mohammad Hussein Farhangi said he favors separating the counterintelligence unit from the rest of the ministry, but he opposes making the ministry an organization because it would no longer be accountable to the legislature.
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Another hard-liner, Hamid Reza Haji-Babai, warned that the bill could weaken the ministry.
List of Legally Registered Parties
So far 110 parties and political groups have received license from the Parties Article 10 Commission. The following is the list of 94 of them of which details are held.
The date is the date of the license; the names are the members of the founding boards
1. Jam’iyat-e Zanan-e Jomhuri-e Eslami-e Iran, IR of Iran Women Society, 02/07/1989; Sahara Mostafavi, Marziyeh Hadidchi Dabbagh, Robabeh Rafiei-Taari Fayyazbakhsh, Fatemeh Iranmanesh, Sediqeh Moqaddasi, Qodsiyeh Firoozan, Sheila Jelodarzadeh and Fatemeh Tabatabaei.
2. Majma-e Rowhaniyoun-e Mobarez, Militant Clerics League, 02/07/1989; Mahdi Karrubi, Seyed Aliakbar Mohtashami, Seyed Mohamadali Abtahi, Abdolvahed Mussavi-Lari, Majid Ansari, Assadollah Bayat, Seyed Mohammad Khatami, Rasul Montajabnia, Sadeq Khalkhali-Givi, Seyed Mahmoud Doaei, Seyed Mohamadreza Tavassoli.
3. Jam’iyat-e Fadaian-e Eslam, Islam Devotees Society, 02/07/1989; Mohamadmehdi Abdekhodaei, Mohamadali Lavassani, Seyed Mohammad Mirdamad-Esfahani, Mohamadreza Niknam-Amini, Seyed Javad Vahedi-Bodla, Seyed Hassan Mortazavi, Asghari Omri, Ali Bahar-Hamedani, Mohamadmehdi Farju.
4. Kanoon-e Honarmandan va Nevissandegan-e Mosalman, Muslim Artists & Writers Center, 02/07/1989; Morteza Heidari, Farzin Negaarestan, Seyed Mohamadbaqer Fadavi, Adham Zarqaam, Beitollah Sattarian, Seyed Amir Mansouri, Abulqassem Kaakhi, Alireza Noroozi-talab.
5. Jame-e Rowhaniat-e Mobarez-e Tabriz, Tabriz Militant Clergy Association, 18/08/1989; Seyed Hossein Mussavi-Tabrizi, Mohammad Imaani-Yaamchi, Mohammad Karimi, Seyed Razi Balaaghi, Qodrat Shojaie, Najaf Aqazadeh-Astarkaan, Esshaq Forootan, Mohammad Rohanizadeh, Ezzat Lahooti.
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6. Hezb-e Hedayat-e Eslami, Islamic Guidance Party, 19/01/1990 [collapsed in 1996]; Aliakbar Khoshru, Seyed Hossein Abtahi, Ebrahim Heidari, Alireza Allahdaadi, Dariyoush Zargari, Ebrahim Shams, Mohamadrza Taalebian.
7. Kanoon-e Faregholtahsilan-e Shebhi Qarrehi Hend, Center for Graduates From Indian Subcontinent, 19/02/1990; Manouchehr Mottaki, Seyed Mehdi Nabizadeh, Abbasali Taslimi, Javad Salimi, Mehdi Mohtashami, Seyed Ahmad MirJafar-Tafti, Anosheh Gilaninejad, Massoud Mohamadzamani, Mohammad Assadi-Taari
8. Jam’iyat-e Mo’talefehi Elam Islamic Coalition Society, 11/12/1990: Habibollah Asgarowladi, Assadollah Badamchian, Seyed Asghar Rokhsefat.
9. Kanoon-e Eslami-e Mohandessin, Engineers Islamic Center, 11/12/1990; Gholamreza Abdollahi, Majid Habibian, Mokhtar Matinrazm, Aliasghar Khashehchi, Mostafa Noori-Latif, Mohamadhassan Najafi-Qodsi, Mohamadhassan Tavallaie, Ahmad Roshanfekr-Raad.
10. Kanoon-e Wali-e Asr, Wali-Asr Center, 26/02/1991; Ramazan Jannati-Razavi, Hassan Amiri-Qariyehali, Mohammad Sohrabi, Hassan Rashidi-Taashkuie, Mohamadali Khorassani, Aliakbar Amiri, Mohamadali Hakimi, Gholamreza Khorassani.
11. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Mo’allemaan-e Iran, Islamic Association of Iranian Teachers, 09/04/l991; Morteza Katiraie, Asghar Noroozi, Movahednia, Abbas Douzdouzani, Goharolsharieh Dastgheib.
12. Jame-e Eslami-e Mohandessin, Islamic Association of Engineers, 28/05/1991; Hassan Ghafoorifard, Mohamadreza Bahonar, Seyed Mohsen Behfar, Seyed Morteza Nabavi, Seyed Mojtaba Shohreh-hashemi, Gholamhossein Amiri.
13. Anjoman-e Mohandesaan-e Iran, Association of Iranian Engineers, 01/10/1991; Rahmatollah Khossravi, Mohamadreza Behzadian, Alimohamad Ahmadi, Seyed Hassan al-Hosseini, Karim Malekasa, Ahmad Kabiri, Mohsen Nariman, Mohammad Qomi.
14. Saazeman-e Mojahedin-e Enqelab-e Eslami-e Iran, Islamic Revolution Mojahedin Organization, 01/10/1991; Mohammad Salaamati, Behzad Nabavi, Hossein Sadeqi.
15. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Modarressin-e Daneshgaha, Islamic Association of University Tutors, 10/11/1991; Najafqoli Habibi, Alireza Saffarian, Mahmoud Saremi, Davood Soleymani, Qorban Behzadinejad, Mirfazlollah Mussavi.
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16. Jame-e Zeinab S.A, Zeinab S.A. Association, 10/11/1991; Maryam Zaferani-Behroozi, Manizheh Noubakht, Nafiseh Fayyazbakhsh, Parvin Salimi, Shamsi Moetazedi, Azam Nooshehgol, Nahidazam Ram-panahi, Massoumeh Rezaie-Nazari.
17. Khanehye Kargar, Labor House, 04/01/1992; Alireza Mahjoob, Hossein Kamali, Ali Rabi’i, Reza MohamadWali, Mohammad Daneshvar, Esrafil Ebadati, Mahmoud Assadi.
18. Markaz-e Eslami-e Daneshgahian, Islamic Center for University Academicians, 21/04/1992; Reza Dehqani-Farzaam, Minoo Raastmanesh, Mohamadreza Shirzad, Asghar Zokaie, Majid Qaemian, Bahman Noori, Nasser Derakhshan, Ali Hosseinpour.
19. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Mohandessan-e Zaminshenassi va Ma’dan-e Iran, Islamic Association of Iranian Geologists and Mining Engineers, 26/05/1992; Hossein Mozafarinejad, Mohamadbaqer Farhadian, Ebrahim Raastaad, Mohamadhossein Ekhtiarabadi, Nematollah Rashidnejad, Mohamadtaqi Karehi, Mohamadjavad Vaezipour.
20. Jameye-e Eslami-e Bakhtiyariha, Bakhtiyaris Islamic Association, 26/05/1992; Assadollah Kian-ersi, Omidvaar Rezaie, Qassem Soleymani, Ali Yussefpour, Qoli Sheikhi, Ali Qanbari, Zabih Karimi, Mohamadreza Mirqaeb.
21. Anjoman-e Faregholtahsilan-e Uroupa, Amrica va Oqyanoussiyeh, Association of Graduates From Europe, America and the Pacific, 04/08/1992; Mehrdad Fooladinejad, Seyed Hossein Fassihi-Langarudi, Ali Khoshbaaten, Ebrahim Nematipour, Ali Asghari, Hamid Mehdiqoli, Hossein Raqamizadeh, Seyed Amireddin Sadrnejad.
22. Jame-e Eslami-e Farhangian, Educators’ Islamic Association, 22/08/1992; Ezzatollah Dehqani, Mansoureh Farahmandzad, Maryam Zaferani-Behrooz, Manizheh Noubakht, Seyed Abulqassem Raoofian, Ali Farahmandzad, Assadollah Badamchian, Mohammad Elahian.
23. Jame-e Zanan-e Enqelab-e Eslami, Women Association of Islamic Revolution, 24/11/1992; Azam Alaei-Taleqani, Badrolmolouk Emampour, Parvindokht Yazdanian.
24. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Mohandessin-e Khorassan, Islamic Association of Khorassan Engineers, 24/11/1992; Aliasghar Azami, Hassan Alijani-Moqaddam, Abbas Amiripour, Ahmad Sheikh-salim, Seyed Mohsen Banihashemi-Chaharom, Ahmad Yarahmadi-Khorassani, Seyed Hashem Banihashemi, Seyed Khalil Mehdizadegan.
25. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Pezeshkan, Islamic Association of Physicians, 20/01/1993; Aliakbar Velayati, Abbas Sheibani, Dr. Shahrzad, Vahid Dastjerdi, Shahabeddin Sadr.
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26. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Jame-e Pezeshki-e Iran, Islamic Association of Iranian Medical Community, 09/04/1993; Mohammad Farhadi, Ahmadali Noorbaala-Tafti, Hassan Hosseini-Toodeshki, Seyed Mohammad Sadr, Mohamadreza Raahchamani, Omidvaar Rezaie-Mirqaed, Seyed Hossein Fattahi, Mohamadreza Vaez-Mahdavi.
27. Kanoon-e Eslami-e Daneshgahian-e Khorassan, Islamic Center of University Academicians of Khorassan 01/10/1993; Mehdi Hassanzadeh, Mohamadali Gandomi, Mehdi Parsa, Hassan Razmi, Seyed Mojtaba Sadat Na’lchian, Mohamad-sadeq Javadihesar, Wali Niknaam-Shaahrak.
28. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Farhangian-e Khorassan, Islamic Association of Khorassan Educators, 01/10/1993; Ahmad Yarahmadi, Nasrollah Mojtahedpour, Javad Aryanmanesh, Seyed Mohsen bani Hashemi, Seyed Ali Fayyazbakhsh, Gholamhossein Afzali, Gholamnabi Golestani, Aliasghar Khalilzadeh, Azizollah Tavakkoli.
29. Jame-e Anjomanha-ye Islami-e Asnaaf va Bazaar, Association of Islamic Associations of Guilds and Traders, 31/10/1993: Said Amani, Ahmad Karimi-Esfahani, Mashallah Javaherian, Mahmoud Faqihi-Rezaie, Morteza Kashani-Zarrin, Massoud Zandiyeh, Mohamadhossein Abdolkhaleqi, Ali Rahmani.
30. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Faregholtahsilan-e Amrica va Canada, Islamic Association of Graduates From America and Canada, 23/11/1993; Reza Shiva, Farrokh Parsizadeh, Davood Bahrami-Siavoshani, Hamid Nasrollahizadeh, Nasser Soltani, Mansour Khodadadi.
31. Jame-e Islami-e Daneshgahian-e Iran, Islamic Association of Iranian Academics, 30/11/1993; Ali Abbaspour, Seyed Mostafa Mirsalim, Abbas Sheibani, Reza Maknoon, Karim Zaare’.
32. Jame-e Eslami-e Karmandan, Islamic Association of Employees, 06/06/1994; Mohamad-sadeq Fayyaz, Nasrollah Mirzaie-Nasir, Hassan Kazempour-Dehkordi, Mostafa Biglar, Ahmadreza Bayat, Seyed Kamal Sajjadi, Mohammad Bokharaie, Rahim Alizadeh-Baarooq.
33. Ettehadiyehi Eslami-e Daneshjooyan va Faregholtahsilan-e Daneshgaha va Mo’assesaat-e Amoozesh-e ‘Ali, Islamic Union of Students and Graduates From Universities and Colleges of Advanced Education, 09/12/1994: Heshmatollah Tabarzadi, Mohamadhassan Alipour, Reza Sarafraaz, Mohamadhossein Zarei, Mohammad Salamati [not to be mistaken with Mr Mohammad Salamati of the Islamic Revolution Mojahedin Organization], Seyed Javad Emami.
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34. Jame-e Islami-e Kargaran, Islamic Association of Workers, 11/08/1995; Alireza Saber-Kouchaksaraie, Mostafa Biglar, Abdullah Hamidi, Mohammad Eqbal, Massoud Berahman, Majid Afshari.
35. Jame-e Anjomanha-ye Eslami-e Assnaaf-e Khorassan, Society of Islamic Associations of Khorassan Traders, 15/06/1996; Ali Shamqadri, Mohamadali Ghaffarian, Massoud Akhavizadeh, Seyed Ali Shoostari, Nasser Moqaddam, Mohamad-ebrahim Vahedian-Azimi, Mohamadhossein Niazmand.
36. Jame-e Eslami-e Dandaanpezeshkan, Islamic Association of Dentists, 12/06/1996; Nasrollah Eshqyar, Abbas Monzavi, Mohamad-sadeq Ahmadakhondi, Ahmadhossein Nekoofar, Kazem Ashofteh-Yazdi.
37. Jam’iyat-e Eslami-e Vokalaa-ye Daadgostari, Islamic Bar Association, 04/07/1997; Nabiollah Ahamadloo, Gholamreza Amini, Said Khorshidi, Abazar Mohebbi.
38. Jame-e Eslami-e Daampezeshkan, Islamic Association of Veterinarians; 27/06/1997 Alireza Sadiqi, Mohamadali Akhavizadegan, Mohamadkazem Kuhi, Mohamadali Rad.
39. Anjoman-e Rooznamehnegaaran-e Mosalman, Association of Muslim Journalists, 02/08/1997; Hossein Shariatmadari, Hossein Entezami, Seyed Mohammad Safizadeh, Seyed Jalal Fayyazi, Abbas Salimi-Namin, Seyed Morteza Nabavi, Mehdi Shojaie, Alireza Mokhtarpour, Mehdi Nasiri.
40. Jam’iyat-e Defaa’ az Arzeshha-ye Enqelab-e Eslami, Association for Defense of Values of the Islamic Revolution, 14/10/1997; Mohammad Mohammadi-Nik, Seyed Ali Ghayouri-Najafabadi, Seyed Aliakbar Abotorabi, Ali Raazini, Ruhollah Hosseinian, Mohamad-sadeq Arabnia, Ahmad Pournejati, Mohammad Shariatmadari, Mohsen Soltani-Shirazi.
41. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Kargaran-e Khorassan, Islamic Association of Khorassan Laborers, 31/01/1998; Ahmad Tavakkoli-Afshaar, Mahmoud Mohamadi-Thani, Hassan Sadeqi Fatthabaad, Hassan Saidizadeh, Gholamhossein Torkzadeh, Gholamabbas Hamidi, Mohammad Nejati.
42. Kanoon-e Faregholtahsilan-e Azarbaijan-e Gharbi, Center for Graduates From West Azarbaijan, 10/03/1998; Ali Kamyar, Alireza Siavashpour, Qassem Moridi, Amir Eslamitabaar, Mohsen Baqerzadeh.
43. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Faregholtahsilan-e Daneshkadehi Fanni-e Daneshgahi Tehran, Islamic Association of Engineering Facaulty Graduates of the Tehran University,
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13/03/1998; Ali Asghari, Reza Faraji-dana, Seyed Mehdi Fakhraie, Habibollah Bitaraf, Abdolmajid Shahidi.
44. Anjonman-e Eslami-e Faregholtahsilan-e Daneshkadehi Oloom-e Qazaie va Khadamaat-e Edaari, Islamic Association of Graduates of Law and Administrative Services, 13/03/1998; Abdolhashem Yaqoobi, Mohamadhassan Pirzadeh, Abbasali Zaare’, Safollah Faghanpour-Azizi, Mohamadhassan Mirzabeigi, Mansour Dastgoshadeh, Aliakbar Mollataba-Elahi.
45. Jame-e Eslami-e Nassehin-e Qom, Qom Islamic Society of Counselors, 13/04/1998; Hossein Irani, Mohamadali Shar’i, Asghar Abdollahi, Reza Ashtiani-Araqi, Mohammad Khalaj, Aliahmad Mianji, Jafar Emami.
46. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Faregholtahsilan-e Daneshgah-e Tarbiat-e Mo’allem, Islamic Association of Graduates From the Teachers Training University, 30/05/1998; Yussef Nikimaleki, Yaqoob Siminrooy, Abbas Mirgalooie-Bayat, Kobra Alipour, Mostafa Monssef, Hossein Salehi.
47. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Faregholtahsilan-e Filipin, Islamic Association of Graduates From the Philippines, 01/06/1998; Mohamadreza Nezamdoust, Ali Abedzadeh, Parviz Jeihooni, Ahmad Makhmali, Hojjatollah Bakhtiyary.
48. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Faregholtahsilan-e Italia, Islamic Association of Graduates From Italy, 01/06/1998; Seyed Mohamadbaqer Hosseini, Mohamadhassan Qadiri-Abyaneh, Hojjat Bahrami, Qodratollah Karbalaie, Hassan Haaj-najjari, Hossein Madadi.
49. Majma-e Namaayandegan-e Advaar-e Mokhtalef-e Majles-e Shoraa-ye Eslami, League of All-Term Majlis Deputies, 01/06/1998; Aliasghar Rahmani-Khalili, Mohsen Rahami, Asghar Faqih-Aliabadi, Gholamreza Ansari, Zabiollah Safaie.
50. Hezb-e Hambastegi-e Iran-e Eslami, Islamic Iran Solidarity Party, 10/07/1998; Mohamadreza Raahchamani, Seyed Mahmood Mirlohi, Gholamreza Ansari, Elyass Hazrati, Qodratollah Nazarinia, Aliasghar Abde-ahmadi, Gholamheydar Ebrahimbai-Salami, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi, Qorbanali Qandehari, Seyed Waliollah Tavakkoli.
51. Jam’iyat-e Fadaian-e Rahbar, Society of Devotees of Leader, 21/07/1998; Nematollah Taqaa’, Abbas Toobaie, Mohamadhossein Roozitalab, Mohamadreza Moshfeqian.
52. Jam’iyat-e Hoqooqdanaan-e Irani-e Modaafe-e Hoqoq-e Bashar, Society of Iranian Laywers Defending Human Rights, 30/08/1998; Gholamreza Amini,
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Ghodratollah Noroozi, Fatemeh Hizomi-Araani, Mansour Alizadi, Nabiollah Ahmadloo, Ahmad Arabameri, Said Khorshidi, Abaazar Mohebbi, Hamidreza Dehqanboudeh.
53. Jam’iyat-e Eslami-e Zanan, Islamic Society of Women, 18/10/1998; Maryam Mohseni, Batool Rangbar-Kohan, Fatemeh Azizabadi, Sahara Azizabadi-Faraahani.
54. Kanoon-e Namaayandegan-e Advaar-e Majles-e Shoraa-ye Eslami, Center for Deputies of Various Terms of Majlis, 08/11/1998; Ali Mobini-Dehkordi, Alinaqi [Seyed-] khamoushi, Mostafa Naseri, Mohamadhashem Rahbari, Abdollah Noroozi.
55. Jam’iyat-e Khedmatgozaaran-e Sazandegi-e Khorassan, Khorassan Construction Servants Society, 08\11\1998; Ahmad Yarahmadi-Khorassani, Ghafoor Helmi-Tarfi, Seyed Jalal Fayyazi, Abdollah Koopaie, Seyed Khalil Mehdizadegan, Mohsen Amirian, Mohamadreza Mohseni, Alireza Safari, Gholamhossein Heidari, Mostafa Yaqini, Javad Aryanmanesh, Abdolmajid Helmi, Aliasghar Azami.
56. Majma-e Eslami-e Karmandan-e Khatt-e Emam, Islamic League of Employees Following the Imam Line, 08/11/1998; Ali Toohidloo, Seyed Hassan Kazemi, Mohamadali Safari, Ramazan Mirzaiepour-Shafi’i, Massoumeh Mohtarami.
57. Jame-e Eslami-e Pezeshkan, Islamic Association of Physicians, 10/11/1998; Khossro Rahmani, Seyed Ahmadali Kazemi, Amirmahmoud Tafazzoli, Reza Sadeqi.
58. Majma-e Nirooha-ye Khatt-e Emam, League of Imam Line Forces, 10/11/1998; Seyed Hadi Khamenei, Rahmatollah Khossravi, Ahmad Hakimipour.
59. Jam’iyat-e Tarafdaraan-e Nazm va Qanoon, Society of Advocates of Law & Order, 24/11/1998; Hossein Tajarloo, Ali Bazm-azmoon, Yussef Sheikhinejad, Ali Movasheh
60. Kanoon-e Eslami-e Ostadaan-e Daneshgahi, Tehran Islamic Center of Tehran University Lecturers, 25/11/1998; Behzad Moshiri, Karen Abrinia, Mojtaba Shariati-Niyasar, Mohamadhassan Panjehshahi, Hassan Farhangi, Nasser Soltani, Reza Shiva, Seyem Mohamadhossein Pishbin.
61. Jame-e Eslami-e Fareqoltahsilan-e Honar, Islamic Association of Arts Graduates, 25/11/1998; Abdolhadi Qazvinian, Mohamadjavad Rassaie, Mirlatif Mussavi-Gargari.
62. Jame-e Eslami-e Varzeshkaraan, Islamic Association of Sportsmen, 25/11/1998; Mahmoud Mashhoon, Seyed Mostafa Mirsalim, Mohamadreza Rahimi, Hassan Ghafourifard, Eidi Alijani, Mohammad Ansari, Seyed Amirahmad Mozafari, Ahmad Nateq-Noori.
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63. Majma-e Eslami-e Baanuan, Women Islamic League, 20/12/1998; Fatemeh Karrubi, Soheila Jelodarzadeh, Soussan Seif.
64. Jam’iyat-e Peirovan-e Velayat-e Faqihi Dashtestan, Association of Followers of Guardianship of Supreme Jurisprudent in Dashtestan, 20/12/1998; Ali Behbahani, Seyed Esmail Hosseininejad, Mohammad Abedi, Masoud Atashi, Akbar Mohajeri.
65. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Karkonan-e Bimehi Alborz, Islamic Association of Alborz Insurance Employees, 25/12/1998; Davoodali Shirazi, Hedayat Sadeqi-Arsegah, Maryam Karimi, Alireza Moqarrab, Qorbanali Fatthi-Gerashini.
66. Hezb-e Tamaddon-e Eslami, Islamic Civilization Party, 03/01/1999; Mohammad Honardoust, Mojtaba Haraati-Nik, Alireza Manzari, Morteza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Motevallian, Mirmehdi Najafi, Hamidreza Elmolhoda, Mohamadali Aqaie.
67. Majma-e Pooyandegan-e Andisheha-ye Eslam, League of Searchers for Islamic Schools of Thought 09/01/1999; Mohammad Ashrafi-Mahabadi, Mohamadali Khallaaqpour, Ali Daastaani, Ali Tirdaad, Massoud Shafeizadeh, Eivaz Tizjang, Manouchehr Ebaadi.
68. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Farhangian-e Ostaan-e Qom, Islamic Association of Qom Province Educators, 09/01/1999; Seyed Yussef Pour-yazdanparast, Taqi Nazeri, Abbas Mohammadi, Gholamreza Rezaiean-Maleki, Seyed Aliasghar Borqei.
69. Anjoman-e Rooznamehnegaaran-e Zan-e Iran, Association of Iranian Female Journalists, 09/01/1999; Jamileh Kadivar, Ashraf Geraamizadegan, Homeira Hosseini-Yeganeh, Jaleh Faramarzian-Borugeni, Parvaneh Mohhi.
70. Kanoon-e Eslami-e Modaressan-e Marakez-e Tarbiat-e Mo’allem, Islamic Center for Teachers of Teacher-Training Institutions, 14/01/1999; Ayyoob Vahdatnia, Mohamadreza Hezaveh, Habibollah Jadidi, Tahereh Shaalchian, Mohammad Vakili-Mahallati, Ruhangiz Dorobaati, Tayyebeh Yazdani.
71. Majma-e Daneshjooyan va Fareqoltahsilan-e Gilani, League of Gilaki Graduates and Undergraduates, 19/01/1999; Behzad Roohi, Seyed Saber Mir-ataie, Sirous Bahramzadeh, Ali Ferdowsi, Shahrokh Ramazan-nejad.
72. Jame-e Daneshjooyan va Fareqoltahsilan-e Kermanshahi, Association of Kermanshahi Graduates and Undergraduates, 19/01/1999; Hamidreza Samadi-shohreh, Marzieh Mahidashti, Nooshin Mohammadi, Hamid Fadaie, Morad Hosseini, Qodratollah Najafi, Mehdi Rangbar.
73. Hezb-e Islami-e Kar, Islamic Labor Party, 24/01/1999; Alireza Mahjoob, Soheila Jelodarzadeh, Abdolrahman Tajeddin.
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74. Majma-e Eslami-e Fareqoltahsilan-e Daneshgahi Abu Reyhan Birouni, Islamic League of Graduates From University of Abu Reyhan Birouni, 24/01/1999; Mohammad Jariani, Seyed Abdolhossein Vahedi, Mohamadtaqi Shirkavand, Mohamadreza Sharifnia, Seyed Ahmad Mussavi, Seyed Morteza Sahri, Akbar Hakkakaan.
75. Kannon-e Tarbiat-e Eslami, Islamic Training Center, 24/01/1999; Hossein Ahmadi, Alireza Baraatian, Yussef Soltani, Mahmoud Farshidi, Nosratollah Taheri.
76. Jam’iyat-e Zanan-e Enqelab-e Eslami, Islamic Revolution Women Society, 24/01/1999; Sahara Mazloomifard, Sediqehbeigom Hejazi-Taaqaanaki, Sediqeh Tajifard, Nayyereh Qavi, Minakhanoom Behzadi, Kobra Khaz-ali, Hakimeh Jafarinasab-Kermani.
77. Tashakkol-e Eslami-e Fareqoltahsilan-e Lorestani, Islamic Organization of Lorestani Graduates, 29/01/1999; Ebrahim Baraani-Beiranvand, Ali Mikhak-Beiranvand, Mohammad Sharafi, Bahador Walizadeh, Majid Sabbah, Aliyar Rashidpour, Faroud Hashemi.
78. Majma-e Daneshjooyan va Fareqoltahsilan-e Yazdi, League of Yazdi Graduates and Undergraduates, 18/02/1999; Ali Afkhami-Fatthabad, Mohamadali Salmaninejad, Mohamadhossein Shariati-nasab.
79. Jam’iyat-e Javanaan-e Enqelab-e Eslami, Youth Society of Islamic Revolution, 18/02/1999; Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Asghar Abulqassem-Pourkia, Aliasghar Mirzaie.
80. Jam’iyat-e Ansar ul-Mahdi, Ansar ul-Mahdi Society, 19/02/1999; Khanoom-ozra Ansari, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Abdorrahman Ansari.
81. Jam’iyat-e Mostaqel-e Iran-e Eslami, Islamic Iran Independent Society, 19/02/1999; Qodratali Heshmatin, Javad Baqerzadeh, Ahmadali Amjadian, Ebadollah Fallahi, Fereshteh Heshmatian.
82. Hezb-e Farzandan-e Iran, Children of Iran Party, 19/02/1999; Jamshid Irani, Mohamadreza Abulhassani, Mohamadtaher Ahangari-Osbouie, Araasb Ahmadian, Behrooz Sabouri-Sobhani, Ali Javadi.
83. Jebhe-ye Mosharekat-e Iran-e Eslami, Islamic Iran Participation Front, 19/02/1999; Mohamadreza Khatami, Hossein Kashefi, Hossein Nasiri.
84. Kanoon-e Eslami-e Qozzat, Islamic Center for Judges, 19/02/1999; Mohamadhassan Mirzabeigi, Jamal Qezavati, Mohammad Mohammadi.
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85. Kanoon-e Zendanian-e Siasi-e Mosalman-e Doran-e Qabl az Piroozi-e Enqelab, Center for Muslim Political Prisoners Before Victory of Revolution, 08/03/1999; Seyed Kazem Akrami, Mostafa Barzegar, Ahmadali Borhanifar, Ahmad Hatami-Yazd, Jalal Samsaami-Fard, Hossein Tousi, Mohamadreza Alihosseini-abbasi, Javad Mansouri, Allahkaram Mirzaie.
86. Anjoman-e Modiran va Motekhassesin-e San’ati va Eqtesadi-e Iran, Association of Iranian Industrial and Economic Specialists and Executives, 04/05/1999; Mohsen Safaie-Faraahani, Morteza Alviri, Morteza Haji, Nourollah Abedi, Seyed Reza Norooz-zadeh.
87. Kanoon-e Hambastegi-e Farhangian-e Iran, Center for Solidarity of Iran Educators, 04/05/1999; Ali Fa’ezi, Mohsen Ashtiyani-Araqi, Mahmoud Kazemi-Bidhendi, Abbas Elam-Mofidabad.
88. Kannon-e Farhangi-e Missaq-e Shohada Cultural Center for Allegiance to Martyrs, 25/05/1999; Bibiqodsiyeh Seyedi-alavi, Zohreh Erfanian Zeirparvar-Javan, Nayyereh Pourjavad.
89. Jam’iyat-e Isargaran-e Enqelab-e Eslami, Society of Devotees of the Islamic Revolution, 26/07/1999; Davood Danesh-jafari, Hossein Fadaie, Ali Yussefpour, Abdolhussein Ruholamin, Ali Darabi, Asghar Sabouri, Mojtaba Shakeri, Ahmadali Moqimi.
90. Hezb-e Islami-e Refahi Kargaran, Islamic Labor Welfare Party, 15/08/1999: Hossein Sarafraz, Abbas Allahyar, Hassan Faraji-Golhin.
91. Majma-e Daneshgahian-e Ostaan-e Golestan, League of Golestan Province Academicians, 05/03/1999; Hamid Haqshenas, Yahya Samadinejad, Ehsan Maktabi, Massoud Rahnamaie.
92. Hezb-e Kargozaran-e Sazandegi-e Iran, Executives of Construction Party of Iran, 15/08/1999; Mohammad Hashemi-Bahremani, Ataollah Mohajerani, Mohsen Noorbakhsh, Mohamadali Najafi, Faezeh Hashemi-Bahremani, Hossein Mar’ashi, Reza Amrollahi.
93. Anjoman-e Eslami-e Fareqoltahsilan, Islamic Association of Graduates, 15/08/1999; Vahid Ahmadi, Mahmoud Nili-Ahmadabadi, Adel Torkaman-Rahmani, Rahmatollah Qajar, Mohamadali Doostari, Seyed Hessameddin Zagardi, Ziaeddin Shoaie.
94. Hezb-e Sa’adat-e Iran, Iran Prosperity Party, 19/05/1999; Gholamreza Sediqi Ora’i, Hassan Jamshidi, Mohamadjavad Faza’eli-Akhlaqi, Nasser Mohammadi, Seyed Reza Vasse’i, Hossein Rathaie, Hamidreza Qandehariyoun.
Editor, Researcher: Farjam Behnam 239
95. Hezb-e Esteqlal-e Iran, Iran Independence Party, 09/07/1999; Secretay Sadeq Shams

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